A New Fiction Culture in America

Twice now, I’ve printed this article out and twice, I’ve handed it to a student whom I know to be interested in writing. Both times, the recipient glanced down at it, then, still talking, started skimming through a paragraph or two, then kind of stopped talking–reading by then–before saying, “Well, I’m going to go sit down and read this now.”

It’s that interesting. Print it out and pass it on to a writer you know (or at least forward the link). A taster:

There were 79 degree-granting programs in creative writing in 1975; today, there are 854! This explosion has created a huge source of financial support for working writers, not just in the form of lecture fees, adjunctships, and temporary appointments—though these abound—but honest-to-goodness jobs: decently paid, relatively secure compared to other industries, and often even tenured. It would be fascinating to know the numbers—what percentage of the total income of American fiction writers comes from the university, and what percentage from publishing contracts—but it’s safe to say that the university now rivals, if it hasn’t surpassed, New York as the economic center of the literary fiction world. This situation—of two complementary economic systems of roughly matched strength—is a new one for American fiction. As the mass readership of literary fiction has peaked and subsided, and the march of technology sends the New York publishing world into spasms of perpetual anxiety, if not its much-advertised death throes, the MFA program has picked up the financial slack and then some, offering steady payment to more fiction writers than, perhaps, have ever been paid before.

Everyone knows this. But what’s remarked rarely if at all is the way that this balance has created, in effect, two literary cultures (or, more precisely, two literary fiction cultures) in the United States: one condensed in New York, the other spread across the diffuse network of provincial college towns that spans from Irvine, Calif., to Austin, Texas, to Ann Arbor, Mich., to Tallahassee, Fla. (with a kind of wormhole at the center, in Iowa City, into which one can step and reappear at the New Yorker offices on 42nd Street). The superficial differences between these two cultures can be summed up charticle-style: short stories vs. novels; Amy Hempel vs. Jonathan Franzen; library copies vs. galley copies; Poets & Writers vs. the New YorkObserver; Wonder Boys vs. The Devil Wears Prada; the Association of Writers and Writing Programs conference vs. the Frankfurt Book Fair; departmental parties vs. publishing parties; literary readings vs. publishing parties; staying home vs. publishing parties. But the differences also run deep. Each culture has its own canonical works and heroic figures; each has its own logic of social and professional advancement. Each affords its members certain aesthetic and personal freedoms while restricting others; each exerts its own subtle but powerful pressures on the work being produced.

Read the rest. It’s worth it. Even if it isn’t until next week…


7 thoughts on “A New Fiction Culture in America

  1. Almost a thousand creative writing programs from almost a hundred is quite the jump to the make in 35 years. Not sure what it all means though – is creative writing that much more interesting to students now?

    • Maybe because there are more publishing options/outlets (especially self-published) than thirty years ago (including the proliferation of television channels through the growth of Cable television) way back when? But that’s a guess.

      In truth, I don’t know either; I suppose we’ll be dead before that question can be satisfactorily addressed.

      • Are there really more publishing outlets? Okay, yeah, there is a lot more tv than there used to be and that would mean they need more screen writers. But I thought there were far fewer magazines and such than there used to be. Fewer publishing houses as they have been bought out, taken over and merged with each other. It is a lot easier to self-publish today than it used to b.

        • I don’t have any numbers–just speculative conjecture (is there another kind or am I being repetitively redundant? (on purpose the second time)). There are definitely fewer newspapers, probably fewer magazines (printed on paper, anyway), and quite likely fewer publishing houses; I’d say you’re right about all of that.

          I was thinking about the self publishing options, though (ten years of blogging, not to mention all the other Web site options, etc.), and the e-zines, and random web sites that, even if they don’t directly publish fiction, still make a writing life more feasible than it may have been in say the sixties (again, more conjecture) where the options for writers were Journalist, Novelist, or Copywriter for advertising. Is that too simplistic? Probably.

          I remember that a lot of people wanted writers though in the mid-90s, preferably young and creative, to whip up copy for web sites and more–corporate and otherwise. No?

          • Yeah you are probably write about. I don’t remember that about the 90’s, but I was a kid back than and not really paying attention to that sort of thing. It is probably easier today – connecting to other writers and all.

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